Metalloproteinase MMPs — Matrix metalloproteinase is a family of zinc dependant interstitial enzymes. The first evidence of a possible role of H2S in Health paper hypertension essay was the finding that H2S could relax the smooth muscle of ileum, portal vein, and thoracic aorta in vitro, and decrease the mean arterial pressure in vivoand could inhibit the proliferation of cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells of rats and humans via inhibition of MAPK activity.
For many years the right ventricle was grossly undervalued and considered to function mainly as a conduit, while its contractile performance was considered haemodynamically unimportant.
In the elderly, obesity has been associated not only with increased mortality, but also with elevated risks of hypertension and other CVD. It is directly leads to increase in peripheral vascular resistance, a path gnomic characteristic of hypertension in the elderly population.
The disease is associated with organ damage and development of several other illnesses, for instance, heart failure and attack, stroke, renal failure and aneurysm.
The reason for the increased prevalence of hypertension among blacks is unclear, but the increase has been attributed to lower rennin levels, greater sensitivity to vasopressin, higher salt intake, and greater environmental stress.
On the other hand, non modifiable determinants include those factors that are beyond the control of the individual. A study carried out in Brazil shows that people exposed to high levels of repeated psychological stress develop hypertension to a greater extent than those who do not experience as much stress.
Modifiable risk factors could be controlled through life style modification or by medical intervention. These changes also contribute to increase peripheral vascular resistance and lead to hypertension.
If cholesterol and triglyceride levels are increased, a diet low in saturated fats may be recommended. Heterometrimeric G Proteins — Many hormones and neurotransmitters implicated in the initiation and exacerbation of myocardial hypertrophy including angiotensin II and endothelin, bind to cell membrane receptors which couple to a subset of intracellular hetero-metrimeric G proteins — the G q class.
It is a precursor to adrenal steroids, sex hormones, bile and bile acids.
Some clinical trials suggest that increasing dietary potassium by approximately 54 mmol per day can reduce systolic blood pressure by mmHg in hypertensive patients.
Decrease intake of fresh fruits and vegetables has been proposed to be a vascular risk factor. A family history of hypertension at an early age increases the risk.
Healthy changes include maintaining a normal weight, exercising regularly, quitting smoking, limiting alcohol consumption to no more than one or two drinks a day, reducing sodium salt intake, and increasing potassium intake. Regardless of whether a person has primary or secondary hypertension, the same types of organ damage and complications occur.
Endothelin — Some animal studies suggest that endothelin plays a role in the development of left ventricular wall hypertrophy in response to elevated blood pressure.
Moreover, with increasing the age, blood vessels also become less responsive to B- adrenergic stimulation, which is necessary for vasodilatation. Renal failure may also result from decreased circulation to the kidneys. Racial Differences in Hypertension: Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body.
Most cholesterol in the blood is carried in two kinds of a protein called lipoproteins: Moreover, insulin resistance and high insulin levels are associated with the development of LVH in hypertensive patients.
In addition, when you are out of shape, it takes more effort for your heart to pump blood. There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. By constricting blood vessels, nor-epinephrine increases peripheral vascular resistance and raises blood pressure. Diastolic pressure can be increased 4 to 13 mm Hg.
Too much alcohol can contribute to high triglycerides, cancer and other diseases, obesity, alcoholism, suicide and accidents. This increase in mass predominantly results from a chronic increase in afterload of the LV caused by the hypertension, although there is also a genetic component.
Twenty-four-hour blood pressure recordings have shown a much closer correlation between LV mass and average daily blood pressure. The factors contributing to its prevalence may be considered environmental, demographic or genetic.
The improvement of vascular remodelling by H2S was reported to be due to: Angiotensin II — It has been postulated that angiotensin II, via the AT1 receptor, plays a key role in the induction of hypertrophy because it can directly induce the molecular events of early cardiac growth.Health essays Essay: Pulmonary hypertension Scientific literature about the effect of H2S on pulmonary hypertension is not very rich so far and it deals mostly with animal.
Hypertension: The Silent Killer Essay - The patient that stimulated the interest in this subject was a year-old male admitted with an acute exacerbation of COPD.
The patient also had a history of hypertension, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis. Essential hypertension is a heterogeneous disorder, with different patients having different causal factors that lead to high BP.
Essential hypertension needs to be separated into various syndromes because the causes of high BP in most patients presently classified as having essential hypertension can be recognized (Carretero and Oparil ).
The path-physiology of hypertension is an area of active research, attempting to explain causes of hypertension, which is a chronic disease characterized by elevation of blood. Jun 27, · High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major health condition which affects many Americans.
This health condition may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. A normal blood pressure consists of systolic blood pressure divided by diastolic blood pressure, /80mmHg (millimeters of mercury).
Buy custom Self-Care: Health Promotion Plan for Hypertension (HTN) essay Hypertension is also known to many as high blood pressure, and involves arteries possessing exceedingly high blood pressure.
It is a major and mostly experienced cardiovascular disease, characterized by difficulty in pumping of blood by the heart .Download