An introduction to the issue of phantom limb pain

To date, we know of no cases where combined mirror and auditory feedback therapy for PLP has been described. The pathophysiology of phantom limb sensation and PLP is not yet well understood; however, complex peripheral and central mechanisms have been suggested [ 3 ].

Combined mirror visual and auditory feedback therapy for upper limb phantom pain: a case report

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. As mirror therapy is based on visual feedback, it is possible that other types of stimuli such as auditory feedback may augment the treatment of PLP. Mirror therapy for phantom pain was first described by Ramachandran and Rogers-Ramachandran [ 4 ].

Mirror therapy has recently received more attention, with reports of an increased number of patients achieving beneficial outcomes [ 5 - 7 ]. Case presentation We present the case of a year-old Caucasian man, a left upper limb amputee, treated with mirror visual feedback combined with auditory feedback with improved pain relief.

He sustained multiple injuries including a large chest wall avulsion and a severe partial amputation of the left arm.

Left scapulothoracic dislocation and severed left brachial plexus were also found intra-operatively. Introduction There are overlimb amputations in the USA each year [ 1 ].

Here, we report a case of a left upper limb amputee treated with mirror therapy combined with auditory feedback. His head, right arm and lower extremities were grossly intact. Conclusion This case may suggest that auditory feedback might enhance the effectiveness of mirror visual feedback and serve as a valuable addition to the complex multi-sensory processing of body perception in patients who are amputees.

Received Dec 14; Accepted Jan Case presentation A year-old Caucasian man, a full-time student, 1. Various types of treatments for PLP have been attempted, the outcomes of which have largely been disappointing. Abstract Introduction Phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain is a very common issue after amputations.

The concept, also known as mirror visual feedback MVF has also demonstrated positive effects in other diseases such as stroke and complex regional pain syndrome [ 89 ]. PLP may negatively impact the quality of life of patients who are amputees and consume significant medical resources.

Additionally, a significant percentage of patients who are amputees may also experience phantom limb pain PLP.Phantom limb pain (PLP) refers to ongoing painful sensations that seem to be coming from the part of the limb that is no longer there. The limb is gone, but the pain is real.

The onset of this pain most often occurs soon after surgery. Phantom pain has been described as burning, cramping, shooting, squeezing, piercing, or tearing [2 x 2 Hill, A. Phantom limb pain: A review of the literature on attributes and potential mechanisms.

J Pain Symptom Manage. Conceptually, research into phantom limb pain is informed by the particular theory of chronic pain that is dominant at the time the research is undertaken. For example, early physiological theories on the etiology of phantom limb pain were grounded in specificity or pattern theories of pain.

Phantom Limb Pain AUGUST Introduction ISSUE BRIEF. 5. National Medical Organization Recommendations. No guidance documents or recommendations from national medical organizations for the therapeutic use of cannabis or cannabinoids in the management of PLP were found.

Introduction. Phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain is a very common issue after amputations. In recent years there has been accumulating data implicating 'mirror visual feedback' or 'mirror therapy' as helpful in the treatment of phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain.

This study presents a review of the literature on the attributes and potential mechanisms involved in phantom limb pain, encompassing studies describing pain in the residual limb, phantom sensation and phantom limb pain, and the difficulties that may arise when making these distinctions.

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An introduction to the issue of phantom limb pain
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